Vertical Analysis Formula & Purpose What is Vertical Analysis? Video & Lesson Transcript

how to do a vertical analysis

Financial statements that include vertical analysis clearly show line item percentages in a separate column. You now know about the vertical analysis of financial statements and how it differs from the horizontal analysis. You know how to do a vertical analysis with Excel and Google Sheets, using both an income statement and a balance sheet. You can analyze multiple periods separately, then do a horizontal analysis to look for trends. If you already use templates for your financial statements, it’s easy to include the formulas for vertical analysis by adding columns or a new section. You can analyze financial statements using multiple methods, including horizontal and vertical analysis. Horizontal analysis studies changes to variables over time, using historical data to predict future trends.

In the Comparative Balance Sheet, the figures of assets and liabilities are set out as at the beginning and at the June of the year along with the extent of increases or decreases between the two dates. As a financial statement, balance sheet is concerned with summarizing assert owned by the firm and sources of borrowing and owned funds in acquiring these assets. Figure shows a hypothetical balance sheet of Annapurna Textile Inc. as on June 2018. From the analysis, we can make out that both cash and prepaid expenses increased in 2017 compared to 2016. If both companies have similar levels of net sales and total assets, it is reasonable to assume that the more profitable company is the better performer. In general, managers prefer expenses as a percent of net sales to decrease over time, and profit figures as a percent of net sales to increase over time. The following equation is used to analyze a financial statement using vertical analysis.


Using Layer, you can also automate data flows and user management, gathering and updating the data automatically, carrying out the analysis, and sending out customized reports. INVESTMENT BANKING RESOURCESLearn the foundation of Investment banking, financial modeling, valuations and more. With the previous year’s statement and analyzing the period’s profit or loss. Dummies has always stood for taking on complex concepts and making them easy to understand. Dummies helps everyone be more knowledgeable and confident in applying what they know. The content on is for educational and informational purposes only and should not be construed as professional financial advice.

What is the formula for vertical analysis of financial statements?

Vertical analysis formula = (Statement line item / Total base figure) X 100. Horizontal analysis formula = (Comparison year amount – Base year amount) / Base year amount X 100.

\nTo isolate the reason for the net income decline, look at the change in total dollars, as well as the percentage change. Learn what vertical analysis is and how it can be used to compare financial statements. This income statement shows that the company brought in a total of $4.358 billion through sales, and it cost approximately $2.738 billion to achieve those sales, for a gross profit of $1.619 billion. While the definition of an income statement may remind you of a balance sheet, the two documents are designed for different uses. An income statement tallies income and expenses; a balance sheet, on the other hand, records assets, liabilities, and equity. If your analysis reveals unusual trends or variances, take the time to investigate these changes.

How Vertical Analysis Works

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how to do a vertical analysis

This tool uses one line item on the statement as a base against which to evaluate all other items in the same statement. It does this by making them proportional rather than absolute measures. This kind of analysis can be performed on many types of financial statements including the balance sheet and the income statement. Unsurprisingly, vertical analysis is often contrasted with horizontal analysis. As we’ve already established, vertical analysis involves working through your finance sheet line-by-line in order to compare your entries to one base figure. This helps you easily recognise changes in your organisation over time and view any significant profits or losses. The primary advantage of vertical analysis is that it makes financial statements easier to interpret.

Horizontal and Vertical Analysis

To start, the table below shows the company’s historical financial statements – the income statement and balance sheet – of our hypothetical company, which we’ll be using throughout our two-part exercise. A vertical analysis is also the most effective way to compare a company’s financial statement to industry averages. Using actual dollar amounts would be ineffective when analyzing an entire industry, but the common-sized percentages of the vertical analysis solve that problem and make industry comparison possible.

  • The common-sized accounts of vertical analysis make it possible to compare and contrast numbers of far different magnitudes in a meaningful way.
  • However, you can do this quickly for multiple years, particularly if you use a balance sheet template.
  • After more than a decade in the administration side of the business world, she transitioned into Education in 2013.
  • Typically used for a single accounting period, vertical analysis is extremely useful for spotting trends.
  • Now, it’s time for the most important step – analyzing and interpreting the results for the period.
  • On an income statement you conduct vertical analysis by converting each line into a percentage of gross revenue.

Learn accounting fundamentals and how to read financial statements with CFI’s free online accounting classes. By looking at this income statement, we can see that in 2017, the amount of money that the company invested in research and development (10%) horizontal and vertical analysis and advertising (3%). The company also pays interest to the shareholders, which is 2% of the total revenue for the year. It is also highly effective while comparing two or more companies operating in the same industry but with different sizes.

Vertical Analysis Calculator – Excel Model Template

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